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youressay原創論文dissertation代寫-Chinese history

日期:2020-09-23 閱讀:次 作者:essay代寫
1920年代,中國目睹了包括性別和階級在內的多樣性。毛澤東在報告中解釋說,社會階級被顛倒了。在國民黨政權下的封建重男輕女思想體系中,有四個權威,即“政治,氏族,宗教和男性權威”(毛62)。曾經由當地霸主統治的農民和由丈夫統治的婦女有足夠的空間來表達自己的權利和自由,因為毛澤東說:“禁止婦女和窮人參加祖廟宴會的舊規則也被打破了”( 63)。
In 1920s, China witnessed the diversity including gender and class. In his report, Mao explains the social classes were turned upside down. There were four authorities in the feudal-patriarchal ideological system under Kuomintang’s regime, which were “authorities-political, clan, religious, and masculine” authorities (Mao 62). Peasants who were once ruled by the local bullies and women ruled by their husbands got space to speak up for their rights and freedom as Mao says “the old rule barring women and poor people from the banquets in the ancestral temples has also been broken” (63).

有幾個因素導致了社會階級等級制的急劇變化以及政治和社會動蕩。長期不受法制的地主和當地霸權鎮壓農民的鎮壓加劇了工人階級與中上層階級之間的矛盾。在封建-父權制下受到不平等待遇的農民渴望有機會抵制封建地主的主導控制權。根據毛澤東的說法,“很久以來,(當地的欺凌者,卑劣的紳士和無法無天的地主)利用他們的權力對農民施暴,并踐踏他們的腳下。這就是農民反應如此強烈的原因”(47)。毛澤東認為,農民革命是一項歷史使命,注定要在這樣的社會和歷史環境下進行,以推翻過時的腐敗的封建制度并建立新的民主力量(45)。其次,參加農民運動,組織革命活動的農民是人口眾多的貧困農民。這些人不怕任何事情,因為那里的東西很雜亂,沒有什么可失去的。毛澤東認為,“貧困農民占農民總數的70%”(52)。貧窮的農民群眾不懼怕任何潛在的后果,造成了破壞,采取了偉大的革命行動,并推翻了農村地主和當地霸主的統治地位。一群渴望改變的志同道合,熱情的農民還遠遠不夠。另一個重要因素是團體的組織化組織,該組織將來自中國幾乎每個角落的農民捆綁在一起,作為一個整體進行合作。即使是邊遠地區的農民也在移動,他們按照中央人民集團的指示執行革命性任務。
Several factors contributed to the drastic change of the hierarchical arrangement of social classes and the political and social turmoil. The long-term suppress from lawless landlords and local bullies over peasants had intensified the conflicts between the working class and the middle and upper class. Peasants who were treated unequally in the feudal-patriarchal system longed for an opportunity to resist the dominant control of the feudal landlords. According to Mao, “for ages [local bullies, bad gentry, and lawless landlords] have used their power to tyrannize over the peasants and trample them underfoot; that is why the peasants have reacted so strongly” (47). Mao believes the peasant revolution was a historical mission that was destined to take place under such social and historical circumstances to overthrow the obsolete and corrupt feudalism and establish new democratic forces (45). Secondly, the peasants that joined in the peasant movement and organized revolutionary activities were poor peasants in massive population. These people were not afraid of anything because there were so impecunious that they had nothing to lose. According to Mao, “the poor peasants comprise 70 percent” of the entire population of peasant (52). The mass of poor peasants, unafraid of any potential consequences, caused destruction, performed great revolutionary actions, and overthrew the dominance of landlords and local bullies in countryside.  A large group of like-minded and enthusiastic peasants longing for change was not enough. Another important factor was the structured organization of the groups, which tied peasants from almost every corner of China to work together as a whole. Even peasants in remote areas were on the move, and they followed the instruction deiminated by the central group of people to take revolutionary tasks.


有幾個因素導致了社會階級等級制的急劇變化以及政治和社會動蕩。長期不受法制的地主和當地霸權鎮壓農民的鎮壓加劇了工人階級與中上層階級之間的矛盾。在封建-父權制下受到不平等待遇的農民渴望有機會抵制封建地主的主導控制權。根據毛澤東的說法,“很久以來,(當地的欺凌者,卑劣的紳士和無法無天的地主)利用他們的權力對農民施暴,并踐踏他們的腳下。這就是農民反應如此強烈的原因”(47)。毛澤東認為,農民革命是一項歷史使命,注定要在這樣的社會和歷史環境下進行,以推翻過時的腐敗的封建制度并建立新的民主力量(45)。其次,參加農民運動,組織革命活動的農民是人口眾多的貧困農民。這些人不怕任何事情,因為那里的東西很雜亂,沒有什么可失去的。毛澤東認為,“貧困農民占農民總數的70%”(52)。貧窮的農民群眾不懼怕任何潛在的后果,造成了破壞,采取了偉大的革命行動,并推翻了農村地主和當地霸主的統治地位。一群渴望改變的志同道合,熱情的農民還遠遠不夠。另一個重要因素是團體的組織化組織,該組織將來自中國幾乎每個角落的農民捆綁在一起,作為一個整體進行合作。即使是邊遠地區的農民也在移動,他們按照中央人民集團的指示執行革命性任務。
Overall, a collective social movement could not be done only by one person. Mao’s writing provides insights about how effective social protest and revolutions were performed under what condition. Considering the large population of uneducated peasants who were in puberty, the Kuomintang’s regime was not effective enough to deal with the need of the people who were from the bottom of the social hierarchy. In comparison, the communist party attended the needs and demands of the poor peasant, and used their power to attack the unreasonable formation of social structure and the ruling of lawless landlords, local bullies, and bad gentry. On the other hand, women were under such patriarchal system that they were ruled by their husbands. The anger of the peasants and the women were strong enough as a force to overthrow the feudalism. 
Works Cited
Mao, Zedong. “Report on the Peasant Movement in Hunan”. Mao Zedong and China’s Revolutions: A Brief History with Documents, edited by Timothy Cheek, St. Martin’s Press, 2002, pp.41-75.
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